* - denotes native to North America
** - denotes native to the eastern United States
*** - denotes native to Athens County, Ohio

Food-Producing Plants

**Aronia arbutifolia - red chokeberry: 3 gallon
A drought-tolerant shrub that tolerates clay soils. White to light pink flowers in clusters, edible fruit for preserves, fruit effective well into winter, great red fall color. Grows 6'x8'.
**Aronia melanocarpa - black chokeberry: 3 gallon
White flowers in spring and black edible fruit in fall. Fruit is a good source of vitamin C and attracts birds. An adaptable plant for naturalizing, grows in sun to shade. Grows 6'x8'.
***Asimina triloba - pawpaw: 1 gallon
Plant information sheet (pdf)
Bold tropical-looking plant with intriguing, deep maroon flowers in mid-May and edible banana/mango-flavored fruit in September. Ohio's official state native fruit.
***Celtis tenuifolia - dwarf hackberry: 1 gallon
A very well-behaved small tree, up to 20' high. Not subject to the leaf blight or galls of the common hackberry. Loves limestone but will grow in most soils. Berries turn orange then purple, with a sweet, edible rind.
***Cercis canadensis - redbud (coppice): 3 gallon
A small spreading tree, growing to 25', with purple pea-like edible flowers arrayed along branches in spring. Likes sun or shade.
Cornus kousa - Kousa dogwood: 3 gallon
White flowers in May, similar to those of flowering dogwood, with large salmon to peach-colored edible raspberry-like fruit in fall and good fall color. Resistant to anthracnose. Does not do well in dry soils.
Cornus officinalis - sanshuyu, Korean cornel: 3 gallon
Masses of small yellow flowers in late winter with cherry-like edible fruit in late summer and good fall color. Large shrub or small tree, to 15'. Very similar to Cornus mas, the Cornelian cherry. Widely used as a medicinal plant in Asia.
***Corylus americana - American hazel: 3 gallon
A large shrub or small tree forming suckering clumps, 12'-15' high and wide. Good for naturalizing in moist to average soils Like sun to light shade and produces tasty, edible nuts.
***Diospyros virginiana - persimmon: 2 gallon
Often found in our woods along woods' edge or along fence lines. Pale orange, astringent wildlife-friendly fruit is edible (after first frost). Slow-growing, it is variable in height and spread. Old trees are very valuable because of the true ebony heartwood.
***Fagus grandifolia - American beech: 1 gallon
A slow-growing, ultimately large specimen tree with edible seeds. Does not grow well in clay or compacted soils, but tolerates a wide range of soil pH. Grows 50'-60' tall by 30'-40' wide. Newly-emerging leaves are edible in salad or as a potherb.
Fagus orientalis - oriental beech: 3 gallon
Very similar to the American beech (above), but faster growing, and ultimately a larger tree. Newly-emerging leaves are edible in salad or as a potherb.
Lonicera caerulea - honeyberry or haskap: 1 gallon
A honeysuckle bush that bears tasty blue berries and isn't invasive!
Lycium barbarum - goji berry: 3 gallon
A somewhat spiny shrub in the nightshade family, with edible red fruit.
**Matteuccia struthiopteris - ostrich fern
A large fern with edible fiddleheads (must be thoroughly cooked). Has vase-like crowns. Will spread to fill in an area by underground stolons.
**Passiflora incarnata - blue passionflower: 1 gallon
An herbaceous and rather aggressive vine, with beautiful blue flowers followed by rounded, green, balloon-like fruit. When fruit is ripe, the pulp inside is edible, sweet, and very perfumy.
**Quercus macrocarpa - bur oak: 3 gallon
A magnificent, slow-growing specimen tree that needs a lot of space. Has a rough, corky bark, with the largest acorns of any oak, borne abundantly, and ones that are prized by wildlife for food. Prefers growing in the open. Grows 60'-80'.
***Rubus occidentalis - black raspberry: 1 gallon
Our native raspberry, very site-tolerant. Suckers to fill an area, so requires some control
Rubus "Ohio's Treasure" - Ohio's Treasure everbearing black raspberry: 1 gallon
An everbearing black raspberry, with a spring and fall crop, over several months.
**Sambucus pubens - American red-berried elder: 1 gallon
Native to the Appalachian mountains, the berries are in a denser clump and much more showy than the native elderberry. The berries are edible but MUST be cooked first. Likes moist soils.
**Vaccinium corymbosum - Jersey blueberry: 2 gallon
A very late-season blueberry, very sweet berries. One of the easiest and most reliable blueberries to grow. To 6'x3'. Great fall color.
**Vaccinium corymbosum x V. angustifolium - North Country: 2 gallon
A hybrid "half-high" blueberry, early to mid-season, with dark-green foliage; one of the best for ornamental landscaping, or even for patio container growing. To 2'x3'.
**Vaccinium corymbosum - Duke blueberry: 2 gallon
An early blueberry, but it blooms late and the fruit ripens quickly, so safer from frost; heavy fruit production. To 6'x3'. Great fall color.
**Vaccinium corymbosum - Blue Crop blueberry: 2 gallon
A mid-season blueberry. To 5'x3'. Great fall color.
**Vaccinium angustifolium - blueberry: 2 gallon
Low-growing, to 2', produces small but tasty berries. Great to use as a shrub groundcover. Benefits by heavy pruning every few years.

Bee-Friendly Trees and Shrubs

Note: We do not routinely use pesticides on our plants, and rarely use any at all -- and when we do [rarely] use them, they're generally safe soap-type preparations. This list will be revised as we learn more about the best bee plants. Note that most milkweeds are also highly-rated bee plants as well as highly-rated butterfly plants.
Aesculus hippocastanum - horsechestnut: 1 gallon
Plant information sheet (pdf)
***Cephalanthus occidentalis - buttonbush: 1 gallon, 5 gallon
A native shrub with an open habit, can grow in a very wet site, even in standing water. White balls of flowers in August. Good for naturalizing and for wildlife habitat. Grows 10'-12' high and wide.
***Cercis canadensis - redbud (coppice): 3 gallon
A small spreading tree, growing to 25', with purple pea-like edible flowers arrayed along branches in spring. Likes sun or shade.
***Gleditsia triacanthos - honeylocust: 1 gallon
This is our native, thorny variety. Tolerates very wet soils. Trunk thorns may be several inches long. Casts an open shade. We offer this mainly for naturalizing areas. To 60'.
**Hypericum kalmeanum - shrubby St. Johns-wort: 5 gallon
Grows 4' tall and wide with bright yellow flowers in summer. Likes un to part shade. This is used as a medicinal.
***Platanus occidentalis - American sycamore: various
A large, fast-growing tree for a moist or dry site. Tolerates flooding. Grows 60'-80' high by 30-60' wide. Some old specimens have trunks ten feet in diamter.
***Rubus occidentalis - black raspberry: 1 gallon
Our native raspberry, very site-tolerant. Suckers to fill an area, so requires some control
**Tilia americana "Moltkei" - von Moltke basswood: 5 gallon
The BEST of the linden bee trees, in fact, one of the world's best bee trees, blooming in summer. Originally thought to be a hybrid, now thought to be a variety of the native T. americana. Grows to be a large tree, up to 90'x80'.
Tilia sp. - fastigiate linden: 3 gallon
An excellent bee tree, but one with a narrow branch spread -- while tall, up to 80', only maybe 20' wide.
Tilia sp. - Asian linden: 3 gallon
Another excellent bee tree.

Deer-Resistant Plants

Note: Most of the plants in the following list have been rated in the "A: Rarely Damaged" category by Rutgers University. Those without an "A" rating were not included in their rating system.
Aesculus Xcarnea - red horsechestnut: 2 gallon
A hybrid between A. pavia and A. hippocastanum, making a small but bushy tree. Deep red flowers in May with foliage resistant to leaf scorch. Likes sun to light shade.
***Aesculus flava [octandra] - yellow buckeye: 1 gallon
Plant information sheet (pdf)
A medium to large native tree that likes a well-drained site. Attractive yellow spring flowers. Grows 35'-45'.
**Aesculus glabra - Ohio buckeye: 1 gallon
Plant information sheet (pdf)
A medium native tree that prefers to grow at edge of wooded area. Grows 35'-45'. Ohio's official state tree.
Aesculus hippocastanum - horsechestnut: 1 gallon
Plant information sheet (pdf)
A medium to large tree best used in park-like settings. Needs space to grow 60'-70'. This is the "chestnut" tree of the poem "Under the Spreading Chestnut Tree."
**Aesculus parviflora - bottlebrush buckeye: 3 gallon
A shade-loving shrub with a mass of white flowers in June to July, sometimes later. Suckers to form dense clump. Grows 15'-18'.
***Andropogon gerardii - big bluestem
A large native grass that is a mainstay in prairie plantings. Loves a dry, sunny location. To 4'.
**Aronia arbutifolia - red chokeberry: 3 gallon
A drought-tolerant shrub that tolerates clay soils. White to light pink flowers in clusters, edible fruit for preserves, fruit effective well into winter, great red fall color. Grows 6'x8'.
***Asimina triloba - pawpaw: 1 gallon
Plant information sheet (pdf)
Bold tropical-looking plant with intriguing, deep maroon flowers in mid-May and edible banana/mango-flavored fruit in September. Ohio's official state native fruit.
Buxus sempervirens - boxwood: 1 gallon, 2 gallon, 3 gallon
A tough, deer-resistant evergreen. Likes sun to part shade and grows to 5'x3'.
**Chionanthus virginicus - fringetree: 3 gallon
A large multi-stemmed shrub with white fragrant flower panicles in May. Good for sun or filtered shade. Plant in moist, well-drained soil. Grows 15'-20' high by 10' wide. May be male or female, but both have showy flowers.
**Clethra alnifolia - hummingbird clethra: 2 gallon
A great native shrub with glossy-green foliage and fragrant white flowers from July to September. likes sun or shade. Grows 3' high and wide.
Cornus kousa - Kousa dogwood: 3 gallon
White flowers in May, similar to those of flowering dogwood, with large salmon to peach-colored edible raspberry-like fruit in fall and good fall color. Resistant to anthracnose. Does not do well in dry soils.
Fargesia apicirubens "Dracocephala Rufa” - Rufa bamboo
This is a clumping bamboo that remains very densely leafy, making a great screen. Highly deer-resistant. To 9' with 0.5" stems.
***Ferns: various
Ferns as a group are highly deer-resistant.
**Fothergilla gardenii - dwarf fothergilla: 1 gallon
A nice small native, grows 2'-3' tall, with abundant frgrant "bottlebrush" flowers in May. Yellow, red and orange foliage in fall. Good for sun or partial shade and well-drained acidic soil. Does not tolerate dry soils./dd>
***Gleditsia triacanthos - honeylocust: 1 gallon
This is our native, thorny variety. Tolerates very wet soils. Trunk thorns may be several inches long. Casts an open shade. We offer this mainly for naturalizing areas. To 60'.
Hamamelis Xintermedia - early witchhazel, hybrid between H. japonica and H. mollis: 1 gallon
Several named varieties of this large shrub (to 12') that blooms in February and March with yellow flowers that have narrow, twisted petals.
***Hamamelis virginiana - common witchhazel: 1 gallon
An understory shrub or small tree, to 15', with yellow flowers in November that have narrow, twisted petals.
**Ilex verticillata - winterberry: 2 gallon
A medium to large shrub, to 12', with masses of attractive red or black berries in autumn. Slow-growing, tolerates wet soils.
**Itea virginica "Little Henry" - sweetspire: 1 gallon
A small to medium native shrub with fragrant white flowers in Jule to July. Has a mounding habit and good red-purple fall color. This adaptable plant grows in sun to shade, given sufficient moisture. 3'x3'.
***Lindera benzoin - spicebush: 2 gallon
Plant information sheet (pdf)
An understory plant for a moist location with small yellow flowers in April. Has male and female plants; females have showy red berries in autumn. Grows 8'-10' tall by 4'-6' wide.
***Liquidambar styraciflua - "Slender Silhouette" sweetgum: 5 gallon
A native wetlands tree that does fine in normal soil. Corky bark and great fall color, with yellow, red, orange and purple. Prickly fall fruit can be a problem in high-traffic areas. This cultivar is very columnar, never spreading. Grows to 50' high, but no more than 6' wide.
***Magnolia acuminata - cucumbertree: 3 gallon
The largest of all magnolias, and one that is harvested for lumber - a fast-growing tree that needs space. An attractive shade tree with large leaves. Inconspicuous yellow flowers in spring, followed by showy red gherkin-shaped fruit in late summer. Plant in deep, moist acidic soil. Grows 40'-60'.
Magnolia "Betty" - A hybrid of M. liliiflora and M. stellata: 3 gallon
A low-branching, large shrub with abundant beautiful pink flowers in April. A tough and reliable plant. Grows 10'-12' high and wide and likes well-drained soils.
Magnolia liliiflora - woody orchid: 1 gallon
A large shrub, up to 12' high and wide, with showy red to pink flowers in the spring and sporadically through the summer, and glossy leaves in the summer.
**Magnolia macrophylla - bigleaf Magnolia: 5 gallon
A medium to large native with the biggest undivided leaves of any woody plant in North America, up to three feet long. Makes a rounded, medium-size tree in the open, with large white fragrant flowers followed in late summer by large red seedpods. Likes moist, well-drained, slightly acidic soil. Amend with organic material, plant in sun or part shade in area protected from the wind. Grows 30'-35' high.
Magnolia Xsoulangeana - saucer Magnolia, a hybrid of M. denudata and M. liliiflora: 3 gallon
This is the spreading tree magnolia that is covered with huge purple blossoms in the spring (or brown blossoms when they are frost burned). A classic favorite.
**Magnolia tripetala - umbrella Magnolia: 1 gallon, 5 gallon
Large leaves up to two feet long. Makes a rounded, medium-size tree, with large white flowers in late May to June, followed in late summer by large red seedpods. Likes partial sun to shade. Grows 20'-25'.
**Magnolia virginiana - sweetbay: 1 gallon, 3 gallon
A fast-growing evergreen to semi-evergreen tree, usually small to medium-sized. Blooms at an early age and for a long spring period with white flowers followed by red seedpods in late summer. Likes sun to light shade.
Miscanthus sinensis - maiden grass
A large grass forming large clumps topped by seed plumes; sometimes mistaken with pampas grass. Narrow leaves have a silver vein. Likes full sun and well-drained to dry soil. Highly deer-resistant. To 6'.
**Pachysandra procumbens - Allegheny spurge
Grown for its foliage, sometimes variegated. Makes a great sprawling clumping groundcover, but unlike its Japanese cousin, the stems do not root to spread.
***Panicum virgatum - switch grass
A classic native, with narrow leaves. Thrives in full sun, tolerates a wide range of soil moisture. Highly deer-resistant. To 5'.
*Picea glauca - white spruce: 2 gallon
A slow-growing, drought-tolerant evergreen, native to Canada. Likes sun and well-drained soil. Grows to 60' or more.
*Picea pungens - Colorado blue spruce: 2 gallon
The classic blue, columnar spruce tree, native to the Rocky Mountains. Extremely cold-hardy. Prefers well-drained, acidic soil. Protect from drought while young. To 60'x20'.
***Viburnum dentatum - arrowwood: 2 gallon
A white-flowering native shrub with purple berries in fall. This durable shrub is good in sun or shade as a hedge or for naturalizing. Glossy leaves in full sun, tolerates wet soils.

Butterfly-Friendly Plants

Note: We will add to this list!
***Asclepias incarnata - swamp milkweed
A wet-loving tallish and slender plant with pink-flesh-colored flowers. Great for monarch butterflies. We may have other milkweeds; check with us.
Hemerocallis - daylilies
Most daylilies are butterfly-friendly.
***Sedum ternatum - woods stonecrop
Our native sedum. Prefers shade and spring moisture. White flowers can cover the plant.

Wetland Plants

***Acer rubrum - red maple: 3 gallon, 5 gallon
This is a highly versatile native shade tree with a somewhat narrow profile. Good red fall color. Will tolerate moist soils. Grows 40'-45' high by 25'-30' wide.
***Asclepias incarnata - swamp milkweed
A wet-loving tallish and slender plant with pink-flesh-colored flowers. Great for monarch butterflies. We may have other milkweeds; check with us.
**Azolla cristata - mosquito fern
A tiny, moss-like aquatic plant that floats on the surface of water. Will only survive mild winters, but can spread quite a bit during a summer. Turns red in sun.
***Calamus acorus - calamus
***Cephalanthus occidentalis - buttonbush: 1 gallon, 5 gallon
A native shrub with an open habit, can grow in a very wet site, even in standing water. White balls of flowers in August. Good for naturalizing and for wildlife habitat. Grows 10'-12' high and wide.
***Cornus amomum - silky dogwood: 1 gallon, 3 gallon
A great native for naturalizing. Loves wet areas but does fine in ordinary soil. Clusters of creamy-white flowers in late spring. A large shrub, 6'-12' high by wide.
***Equisetum arvense - field horsetail
A low-growing, feathery-looking plant that spreads aggressively, but will mix with other wildflowers or ferns. Very attractive, prefers moist soils.
***Equisetum hyemale - scouring rush
A stiffly-erect, dark green, evergreen plant that resembles a rush. Loves sandy soils. Plant only where it can be contained!
Iris - Siberian type
A tall, narrow, clumping flag that loves wet soils, very dark, intense violet flowers.
Larix decidua - European larch: 3 gallon
A deciduous "evergreen," very beautifully picturesque.
***Liquidambar styraciflua - "Slender Silhouette" sweetgum: 5 gallon
A native wetlands tree that does fine in normal soil. Corky bark and great fall color, with yellow, red, orange and purple. Prickly fall fruit can be a problem in high-traffic areas. This cultivar is very columnar, never spreading. Grows to 50' high, but no more than 6' wide.
***Onoclea sensibilis - sensitive fern
A coarse fern that thrives in full sun with some moisture. Tough and versatile; spreads easily.
**Taxodium distichum - baldcypress: 1 gallon, 5 gallon
A tree native to the southeast US that can grow to be massive, living up to 1200 years old. This deciduous evergreen has nice yellow-brown fall color. Good for wet sites, but can be grown in dry areas. If growing by or in standing water, will send up "cypress knees." Grows 40'-50' or more.
**Taxodium distichum "Falling Waters" - weeping baldcypress: 3 gallon
A weeping form of the above: the central leader grows up, but the side branches grow down. A very picturesque specimen, to 20'.
**Taxodium ascendens - pondcypress: 1 gallon
A close relative of the baldcypress, above, and sometimes included in that species. However, this has appressed scale-like leaves when mature, somewhat like arborvitae, rather than the flat needles of the classic baldcypress.